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Monthly Archives: August 2012

Board TINIWeb: web server

Dalam posting sebelumnya, telah dijelaskan secara dasar gambaran umum dari board ini. Board ini masih memiliki keunggulan mengenai network, selain bahasa pemrogramannya dapat dibuat dengan menggunakan java, C dan assembly. Kemampuan multitasking juga perlu mendapat acungan jempol karena prinsip kerjanya seperti OS Linux.

Persiapan setting firmware

Ada dua bagian firmware yang ada dalam board ini yaitu Slush dan TiniOS. Terakhir pengembangan versinya yang saya miliki adalah slush dan TiniOS versi 1.18. Sungguh beruntung saya masih menyimpannya dengan baik dan masih ada sampai saat ini. Slush merupakan firmware layaknya seperti firmware bootloader saat awal board bekerja. Sedangkan TiniOS merupakan sistem operasi yang mengadopsi seperti halnya linux namun minimalis.

Perangkat lunak yang diperlukan adalah:

  1. MTK merupakan singkatan dari Microcontroller Tool Kit yang dikeluarkan oleh Dallas Semiconductor. Perangkat lunak ini digunakan untuk meng-upload firmware dan konsole user menggunakan antarmuka secara serial RS232. Hal ini berguna jika board diaktifkan pertama kali karena koneksi TCP/IP belum ada, atau untuk mengupgrade firmware. Program MTK dapat anda download disini. Pilih salah satu versi yaitu 2.4.12 atau 2.4.14.
  2. Tini SDK berisi firmware slush dan TiniOS beserta library java ditulis oleh Dallas Semiconductor. Versi ini  harus sesuai dengan versi boardnya yaitu DS80C400 atau versi tini400. Silakan klik disini untuk mendapatkan Tini SDK tersebut.

Upload firmware

Sebagai persiapan awal, anda harus mengupload firmware slush dan tiniOS versi 1.18 ke board TINIWeb. Serial 0 dengan konektor DB9 dengan tanda “Loader Serial 0″ dihubungkan dengan RS232 komputer. Saya sarankan gunakan serial komputer PC, karena saya menggunakan USB to Serial dengan laptop tidak berhasil, entah kenapa. Catu daya yang dibutuhkan adalah 5VDC tidak boleh lebih, dan jumper DTR untuk reset bootloader harus dipasang.

Setelah anda memasang ke serial komputer (PC), biasanya kanal COM1 dan memasang catu daya 5V, jalankan program MTK kemudian setting sebagai berikut:

  1. Configurasi port dengan menggunakan menu: Options => “Configure Serial Port”. Setting kanal serial sesuai dengan kondisi komputer anda, baudrate 115200,8,n,1.
  2. Buka kanal serial dengan menggunakan menu: TINI(R)=>Open ComX……..
  3. Reset board dengan menggunakan menu: TINI(R)=>Reset
Akan muncul tampilan sebagai berikut:

Upload firmware slush_400.tbin dan tini.tbin

Untuk mengupload firmware gunakan menu: File=>Load file. Pilih file slush_400.tbin selanjutnya tini.tbin. File ini ada di direktori tini1.18\bin dari file yang anda download di link diatas, atau anda download disini.

…. bersambung …..

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Vinculum VDRIVE2: modul antarmuka USB Host untuk Flashdisk

Dengan adanya modul VDRIVE2 keluaran vinculum, memungkinkan mikrokontroler dapat membaca dan menulis data ke media penyimpan data flashdisk. Didalamnya ada firmware yang mengendalikan hubungan dengan flashdisk, sehingga antarmuka pembacaan dan penulisan data dengan mikrokontroler secara serial atau SPI. Dengan menggunakan modul ini mikrokontroler akan dapat melakukan operasi layaknya jika flashdisk ditancapkan ke komputer. Hanya saja flashdisk harus diformat terlebih dahulu menggunakan komputer dengan format FAT16 sebelum digunakan. Dengan demikian mikrokontroler dapat membuat direktori, menhapus direktori, menulis data dalam file dan lain sebagainya. Dalam sistem mikroprosesor dapat digunakan sebagai media penyimpan data yang dapat diubah-ubah isinya, misalnya sebagai datalogger.

Untuk mempelajari perintah-perintah yang dimengerti oleh modul ini, saya mengujinya dengan menghubungkan secara serial melalui USBtoSerial-TTL yang ditancapkan ke USB komputer. Kemudian dengan menggunakan program Hyperterminal dengan setting baud 9600,8,n,1 tanpa protokol handshaking, saya dapat mempelajari perintah-perintah sebelum diaplikasikan ke mikrokontroler.

Perintah yang diberikan secara serial merupakan perintah seperti dalam DOS (Disk Operating System), namun perintahnya banyak perbedaan. 

Anda tertarik dan membutuhkan modul ini ?

Silakan hubungi saya atau beri komentar, saya memiliki 10 modul untuk dijual kepada yang membutuhkannya.

Untuk mengetahui perintah-perintah dalam bentuk ASCII pada modul ini, silakan dibaca buku yang dapat anda download dibawah ini.

 

Download disini

 

Posted in Electronics, Elektronika, Hardware, Mikrokontroler | Tagged , | Leave a comment

Board TINIWeb: pengantar

Kali ini saya akan menjelaskan sebuah board keluaran Dallas Semiconductor yaitu TINIWeb. TINI merupakan merek dagang dari Dallas Semiconductor dengan kepanjangan Tiny InterNet Interface, sedangkan Web adalah berbasis Web. Sampai saat ini board tidak dikembangkan lagi, dan menurut saya merupakan board yang memiliki fitur yang banyak terutama untuk networking. Jadi sampai saat ini masih memiliki kesaktian untuk mengaplikasikan fitur network terutama berbasis web. Terdapat dua board yaitu: Board Utama dan Board Mikrokontroler.

Board Utama

Board ini terdiri dari sekumpulan konektor antara lain:

  1. Konektor catudaya DC 5V
  2. Konektor antar muka 1wire (antarmuka 1 kawat)
  3. Konektor Ethernet
  4. Konektor DB9 serial
  5. Konektor DB9 serial untuk loader
  6. Konektor untuk board mikrokontroler
  7. Beberapa konektor header untuk: CAN (Controller Area Network), merupakan antarmuka jaringan antar mikrokontroler. 
  8. Konektor header untuk SPI (Serial Parallel Interface)
  9. Serta komponen kosong untuk I/O menggunakan CPLD XILINX, anda dapat menambahkannya dengan menyolder secara langsung pada pad yang disediakan. 

Board Mikrokontroler

Board mikrokontroler ini berisi komponen utama mikrokontroler DS80C400 yang merupakan turunan dari mikrokontroler 8051. Dalam board ini telah dilengkapi dengan Flash EEPROM dan RAM.

Board ini tergolong belum jadul, karena semua fitur sangat lengkap, dilengkapi dengan OS seperti linux, jadi dapat melakukan eksekusi program secara multitasking. OS didalamnya dapat melakukan eksekusi secara paralel layaknya OS linux, dengan program dibuat dengan bahasa java, assembly,  dan C (keil). Koneksi networknya juga menunjang untuk koneksi web, ssh, telnet dan port lainnya tergantung program, karena berbasis TCP/IP.

Saya memiliki pasangan board yaitu board utama dan mikrokontroler sebanyak 12 pasang. Satu pasang saya gunakan untuk eksperimen, jadi tinggal 11 pasang yang menganggur dan siap untuk dijual kepada para pembaca blog saya. Jika berminat berikan comment pada halaman ini, pasti akan saya jawab.

Dalam posting disini, saya hanya memberikan gambaran tentang fitur-fitur yang ada dalam board ini, menurut saya belum ada tandingannya pada kelas yang sama.

Untuk lebih jelasnya mengenai spesifikasi dan fitur board TINI ini, ada baiknya jika anda membaca buku berikut ini sebagai gambaran mengenai board ini.

Download disini

Anda tertarik dengan board TINIWeb ini ?

Silakan berikan komentar, dan pada posting berikutnya akan saya tuliskan aplikasi-aplikasi kecil dari board ini.

Posted in Hardware, Network | Tagged , , , | 2 Comments

Memonitor gas buang pada mobil

Disini saya akan membahas bagaimana memonitor gas buang pada mobil dengan menggunakan lamda sensor seperti yang telah dibahas dalam 2 posting disini dan posting disini.

Saya memiliki sensor lengkap yaitu terdiri dari sensor, prosesor dan display. Alat ini bisa dipakai untuk keperluan aksesori mobil maupun untuk laboratorium. Untuk keperluan laboratorium alat ini menyediakan antar muka secara serial dan koneksi khusus untuk keperluaan data logger.

Alat ini dapat bekerja dengan sensor O2 keluaran BOSCH LSU-4.2, juga jenis keluaran baru 7052 maupun terbaru 7200. Dalam board terdapat fitur untuk membaca dua sinya analog 0-5V dan sinya RPM dari coil, disediakan khus untuk pengguna yang ingin membaca dua sensor analog seperti kecepatan, temperatur, sisanya adalah khusu untuk RPM yang dapat bekerja pada sinya coil 12V.

Alat ini memiliki spesifikasi sebagai berikut:

  • Dapat membaca λ = 0.61 (AFR = 9.0) to free-air. Dengan ketelitian  +/- 0.1 terhadap AFR 11 to 17.
  • Terdapat tegangan keluaran 0-5V untuk lebar bidang Differential WBlin 
  • Menggunakan sensor Bosch LSU 4.2 7057/7200 sensor (juga 6066).
  • WBlin dapat dikonfigurasi (9.5 bit DAC) dari AFR=9.0 ke udara bebas.
  • Terdapat tombo Auto-call untuk kalibrasi sensor dalam udara bebas.
  • NBsim narrowband (7.5 bit configurable) output. Terdapat keluaran NBsim narrowband (7.5 bit/bisa dikonfigurasi)
  • Terdapat dua masukan analog 0-5V dengan rate sampling sampay 40/detik.
  • Terdapat masukan RPM yang diperoleh dari Tacho atau ECU untuk data logger.
  • PULSE input from VSS sensor or cruise control for logging. Terdapat masukan bentuk pulsa dari sensor VSS.
  • Bekerja pada tegangan aki mobil 10.5 to 19.5 Volt (sampai 3A)
  • Cover Fibreglass.
  • Memiliki keluaran serial RS232.

Posted in Sensor | Tagged , | 2 Comments

Arduino Tutorial: Digital scale

In the previous post has been written about the calibration of load cell sensor for measuring the thrust ofpropeller and the motor/engine. In a posting has been found a constant magnitude of the sensor output voltage per gram about 0.267012014. So every 1 gram increase in weight of load will raise the output voltage of the sensor about 0.267012014 mV.

In my project, this output voltage must be converted into digital numbers using the ADC on the Arduino Nano. Henceforth, the data is sent serially to the PC to be displayed in the monitor. PC programs used in visual basic 6. As a development, in terms of measuring the thrust, required the measurement results are presented in graphical form.

What about the working principle of the Arduino program ?

  1. At just the Arduino turn on, will assume the load is 0.
  2. Arduino will sent periodically value of ADC to the PC every 200mS.
Posted in aeromodelling research, Electronics, instrumentation project | Tagged , , | Leave a comment

A simple calibration of load cell amplifier using loadcell 15Kg

As written in previous posting, I will design and make a test equipment to measure the thrust of propeller and the motor/engine in aeromodelling parts. This measure will help to design rc model, such as fixed wing and multicopter. Before designing a total airframe, need to know first the characteristics of the motor/engine and matching propeller size. I used the load cell with specifications was written on this posting. My load cell is 15Kg of full scale with output voltage about 2mV/V. I used the amplifier capable to gained up to 1000x with source 5V for load cell reference voltage. This mean will give output about 10mV in full scale of 15Kg load.

How to a simple calibrate  ?

Since I do not have the standard weight of high-priced, this way is simple to use a digital scale which has an accuracy of about 0.1gram and can measure up to 1Kg. Next, weigh any load with digital scale, record the result. Then move to the load cell and measuring with a digital voltmeter on the load cell amplifier output voltage.

Photo of digital scale Photo of Load cell
362.2 gram 105.1 Volt
 528.5 gram  151.8 Volt
 63.5 gram  19.8 volt
 275.9 gram  80.7 volt
 34.1 gram  11.7 volt
14.7 gram 6.1 volt
30.2 gram 10.6 volt
130.2 gram 39.1 volt
40.4 gram 13.2 volt
101.2 gram 30.7 volt

Plot data using SCILAB

The commands to plot the datas using SCILAB as follow:

->weight = [362.2,528.5,	63.5,275.9,34.1,	14.7,30.2,130.2,	40.4,101.2]
 weight  =
 
    362.2    528.5    63.5    275.9    34.1    14.7    30.2    130.2    40.4    101.2  
 
->volt=[105.1,151.8,19.8,80.7,11.7,6.1,10.6,39.1,13.2,30.7]
 volt  =
 
    105.1    151.8    19.8    80.7    11.7    6.1    10.6    39.1    13.2    30.7  
 
->size(weight)
 ans  =
 
    1.    10.  
 
->size(volt)
 ans  =
 
    1.    10.  
 
->plot(weight,volt,'ro-.')
 
->xgrid
->title("Loadcell amplifier calibration")
 
->xlabel("Load (gram)")
 
->ylabel("Loadcell amplifier output (mV)")

Will result a graph as follow:

How much’s the output voltage of amplifier at zero load ?

On zero load output voltage at zero load is 2.8mV. My amplifier can not adjust to 0.0 volt, because there null offset voltage. On arduino using 10bit adc with 5V ref, will convert into (2.8/5000)*1024 =  0.57344 less than 1, or will known as 0 decimal.

How to calculate voltage per Kg or mV/Kg ?

From the above data, I would find the average value using Microsoft Excel, will be obtained as follows:

 

So output voltage of amplifier will be: 0.267012014 mV/gram or 267.012014 mV/Kg.

The output amplifier according to specifications from 0 up to 4.3 volts. So that the maximum load that can be read are: 4300/267.012014 = 16.104Kg, near specification of loadcell about 15Kg.

Posted in aeromodelling research, Electronics, instrumentation project | Tagged , , | 2 Comments

Servo BMS-385DMAX on tricopter replaced with MG945 servo

Tail servo on tricopter using airframe of version 3 , which has been written here,  actually can not work normally because of an accident as I have written here. I’ve replaced the servo of BMS-385DMAX with the MG945 servo from towerpro. 

Actual size of the servo is too big and strong torque. But since I have had it before, I have to put it on tricopter. I still maintain to use a mechanical thrust vector system, because it has proven very robust and sturdy. This mechanical system uses direct coupling. Later I will add the coupling between the servo and mechanical axis, servo axis is not easy to shake. Thus if an accident occurs on the tail tricopter, the servo will not be exposed to strong pressure.

Direct coupling of Tail servo mechanical system 

Action at low altitude flying

Replacing tail servo of tricopter

TowerPro MG945 servo

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Selamat datang mesin bor frais

Aku saat ini sangat bersyukur, apa yang aku inginkan untuk memiliki mesin bor frais telah terkabul. Semenjak aku memasuki bangku kuliah S3 Tahun 2008, aku nampak mencintai proses produksi metal, sehingga aku bisa melakukan pekerjaan menggunakan Mesin Bubut (Turning Machine), Milling Machine/Frais, Arc Welding, Boring/Drilling. Semua itu aku lakukan karena berharap agar proses pengerjaan disertasi tidak menghabiskan uang yang besar, karena dapat aku lakukan sendiri sesuai keinginanku.

Namun sampai saat ini Riset disertasiku tentang robot lengan industri mangkrak sejak 2011, karena putus biaya. Aku bersyukur kepada Tuhan YME, ternyata ada alumni yang peduli dan rela memberikan hadiah sebuah Mesin Bor Frais. Aku sambut dengan riang gembira, karena aku memang berangan-angan untuk memiliki mesin ini.

Mudah-mudahan dapat memperkuat riset disertasiku dan juga memperkuat hobiku tentang aeromodelling. Karena aku bercita-cita kelak dapat memproduksi pesawat aeromodelling dengan murah agar dapat dinikmati semua kalangan di negeri kita yang tercinta. Amin ya rabbal alamin.

Posted in mechanical | Tagged , , | Leave a comment

My tricopter design

This tricopter airframe design using wood blocks to the size 0.5cmx1.5cm. Each arm uses two beams of wood tied together with plastic spacers. Arm length about 47cm measured from the center axel of motor to the CG. To make more tricopter look beautiful, I added a canopy made of styrofoam 6mm. The addition of this canopy, from the flight test results add stability while sliding.

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Need stick trimming on tricopter

When there are not balanced lifting on tricopter when you raise the stick thrust around 50%, you need to setup an offset in the yaw , ailerons and elevator sticks on your radio. Or do the trim setup on the radio. Because on my radio use firmware ER9X, i use the offset which on the available menu of ER9X firmware. 

In my case, my tricopter right arm is too strong a driving force, the channel of “AIL” necessary  offset to the right, the left arm thrust needs to be raised. But will result in ‘yaw’ towards the right, thus in the channel of  ”RUD” should be offset to the left.

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Tricopter flight testing in the field’s University of Brawijaya

This time, I tested my tricopter in field’s University of Brawijaya. I enjoyed it, and tricopter very stable. Battery capacity prevented me from playing much longer time. Less than 5 minutes tricopter flying, battery alarm was sounded, as a sign tricopter must go down to the runway. I will order the LIPO about 6000mAH, later.

Specifications

  1. Frame size:Arm size, Motor axel to center about 47Cm. Motor axel to motor axel about 82Cm. Height about 19Cm.
  2. Brushless motor:3 x DT750, drive with 20A ESC.
  3. Propeller:1 CW 11×4.7 + 2 CCW 11×4.7
  4. Controller:KK Board ATMega 168
  5. Power:LIPO Turnigy nano tech 50A, 2200maH
  6. Weight:Total 1290gr

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Arduino tutorial: How to turn on/off 8 LED using visual basic 6

I will share my experience about how to turn on and off 8 leds through the widget made using visual basic 6. I am using visual basic 6 because the file is not large and light program execution.

How its work ?

8 pieces led Arduino connected to a digital channel from D2 .. D9. Each LED in series with a resistor about 120Ohm is connected to GND. Thus each led will turn of  in a logic 1.

Arduino program

On the Arduino board, was created a program to accept the character as a command to turn off and turn on each LED. Command of the character of 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8, used to turn on or turn off each LED on arduino board as toggle function. Other characters as  command of “*” character serves to turn on all LED. The character “-” to order all led to turn off.

Each character as commands are sent serially to the Arduino board. Thus,  the Arduino will send back all conditions of leds in string form., for example, “10101010″. The character “0″ means the condition of the LED is die and vice versa “1″ is alive.

Variable and serial event

As a global variable is “charCmd” defined as byte to hold a character as a command that sent from the PC. Variable of ccmdOk defined as boolean is a flag to mark that character just received from PC. The special variable is stateLED defined as char. This is for holding the state of 8 LEDs in bit for each LED.

The serialEvent() function is event interrupt of microcontroler. This function by default on arduino will call automatically if just completely receive a char from RX pin. If the character has been received from PC, the result will be stored in the variable of “charCmd”, then flag of “cmdOk” is set to “true”.

Functions

Two functions are made to treat the LED on the Arduino board are:

  1. setLED()
    Serves to turn on or turn off each LED corresponding to logic of each bit in the variable conditions of stateLED. Line 28, is looping to get each bit of stateLED variable. Every bit of stateLED variable, is tested using bitRead function(). Thus, written to digital channel of arduino. The status of each led is sent to serial and received by PC as hanshaking or display status.
  2. invertLED()
    This function serve to invert the logic of each bit on stateLED variable, indexed  by n variable. This function have one passing parameter to point each bit on stateLED variable.

Setup() function

This initialization are open serial using 115200baud and making D2 to D9 as output, also all LEDs turn off. For shortened codes, i used loop of for() statement and variable of d is used as index of digital channels that to be connected to LEDs. 

Loop() function

The loop functio () checks if there are characters that is sent by the PC. If the variable cmdOk = true, then there are characters received from the PC is stored in the variable of charCmd. Next tested whether the character is ’1′ to ”8′, ‘*’ or ‘-’. If the character are  ’1 ‘to ’8′, will call the function of invertLED, means reversing the logic of each bit on variable of stateLED. If the character is ‘*’, stateLED will be assigned to 255 (all LEDs will be turned on), ‘-’ stateLED will be assigned to 0 (all LEDs will be turned off).

Source code of arduino program can be downloaded here.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Widget of visual basic 6

 I made this widget by using Visual Basic 6. You can install directly to a computer to download the setup program by clicking here. Or you can download the source program by clicking here. Do not forget to include the name of program creator, and web link on your project.

Demo

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Posted in Arduino, Tutorial | Tagged , , | 14 Comments

Arduino tutorial: 8 LED simple flasher using lookup table

This program is a development of previous post. This uses the table as a data storage pattern of the LED and the constant of the delay.

 

 

To save the patterns and the delay led to use of variables and dataDelay dataFlasher as a array of byte and integer. This table will be placed in the microcontroller program code permanently.

DataFlasher variable is a data sequence of LED patterns, written in binary format for ease verification of the pattern. While the variable  of dataDelay is a data constants of each led patterns as passing parameter for the function of delay(). As dummy load, on the end of data of dataDelay variable is set as null. This is for mark that no data after it.

Inside the function of loop() get any data for led pattern, which is in dataFlasher variables to be sent to each bit of LED (D2 to D9). On line 49 is masking of lsb of current dataFlasher and sent to led with d variabel as channel of digital port. Next on line 50, variable of i to be right shifted for the next bit.

The next data is taken, until dataDelay = 0.  

YouTube Preview Image

Source can be downloaded here

Posted in Arduino, Arduino, Tutorial | Tagged , | 4 Comments

Arduino tutorial: 8 LED simple flasher using looping

Examples of Arduino program here that has just been posted here. Simplified the program by adding a loop instruction that is: for ().
Because the digital pin to 8led is D2 .. D9, then the instruction pinMode (), digitalWrite, and delay () can be inserted into the looping of for() instruction.
More programs like the following:

Program can be explained as follow:

  1. On setup(), using looping for() defined n variables as series 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9. thus, Inside looping of for(), function of pinMode() and digitalWrite() instructions executed for pin of digital as number of 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9.
  2. Inside function of loop(), each led of digital pin turn on about 100ms. Thus do not need to write down instructions repeatedly, for each LED.

Once the compiled binary code becomes smaller when compared to the previous tutorial.

Having executed the same result as the following video.

YouTube Preview Image

Source can be downloaded here.

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Arduino tutorial: 8 LED simple flasher

Here I will explain how to make a simple 8 LED flasher. Of course the program is made very simple logic, using very little instruction as the lesson.
Instructions used are:

  1. pinMode ()
  2. digitalWrite ()
  3. delay ()

With three kinds of instruction can make a simple flasher 8led. 

Open the program code in the Arduino IDE, the program can be described as follows:

  1. First defined the digital pin for the LED 1 .. 8, using the instruction: int LED1 = 2, meaning that using a pin LED1 D1 (digital channel 1). Similarly to other LED uses the same instruction.
  2. In the function setup (), define each pin as an output LED1 .. LED8 with instructions: pinMode (). Also all led made turn off using instruction: digitalWrite (LED1, LOW), as well as for the other led.
  3. The loop function (), each LED is turned on for 100ms, with instruction in sequence:
    digitalWrite (LED1, HIGH);
    delay (100);
    digitalWrite (LED1, LOW);
    Same for the other led to change their variable LED2 … 8.

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Source can be downloaded here.

 

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How to change reponses of throttle stick on ER9X firmware for tricopter

Previously, I was driving my homemade tricopter with a linear throttle response settings. For me this is too linear response caused when the throttle is reduced, tricopter down quickly.

I tried to change the response of the throttle stick to using the curve. I am using the firmware ER9X flysky radio that has this facility. 

I let the Expo remains 0%. I try to just affect the throttle response, and make it more comfortable to pilot. Rapid response is made from low throttle 0-50%, at 50% above the response is reduced.

Throttle curve setting as in the video below.

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Posted in hobby, Multicopter, Multicopter Frames, RC Model, tricopter | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment

Tricopter maneuvers testing in futsal field

This time I test my ability as a pilot of tricopter. Also aims to test the stability of tricopter made by me. I’m still too difficult to control and often disoriented when I was not behind tricopter. I tried doing the twist slowly, with a combined roll and yaw stick. Finally I can do though is often disoriented.

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Posted in KKmulticopter, Multicopter, Multicopter Frames, RC, tricopter | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment

Tricopter hover test

I try to test again my handmade tricopter on hover performances.

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Introduction to the Arduino

Here will be explained about Arduino for beginners. For the programming hobbyists in hardware using microprocessor or microcontroller, the Arduino is an easy choice to make the program like the computer platform programming. 

On computer programming, relations with the hardware for input/output is not necessary to memorize the pin numbers of the hardware.  If you are on a microcontroller environment, must know the pin number that will be used for input/output. Furthermore it should understand the basic philosophy of how to treat the pin. 

Arduino is an IDE for programming microcontroller in order to develop the software as well as computer software development environment.  

Easily obtained using arduino IDE, among others:

  1. The programming language used was C / C + + or combined with the assembly. 
  2. Microcontroller pin numbers are known as fixed by classifying digital or analog channels. Any microcontroller with a label known for Dx to digital, analog to Ax, where x is the channel number. Thus you do not need to remember pin numbers on the microcontroller used.
  3. Programs that have been made using Arduino, can be easily applied to other microcontroller which is recognized by the Arduino. The program does not need to be changed, simply change the configuration of the microcontroller’s used.
  4. To add a new library can be built easily by using C / C + + or combined with the assembly. To integrate with the Arduino program, with enough to include the header of library that will be used. Thus very easy to integrate libraries made by the contributors for use by other users.
  5. Very easy to compile, there are two upload menu to compile and upload, verify menu to compile it. Library search process is done automatically.

How to start ?

Learn to start applying the Arduino, I recommend to you to have an Arduino board first. Avoid advance to make an Arduino board from microcontroller chip. For first, begin to learn programming with a simple application. Many types of Arduino board, more details you can click here.

Next, you must install the Arduino IDE, you can get for free by downloading here. I assume you have a nano to use a microcontroller ATmega328 board. More details about the specifications of this board you can see here.

 

Connect the Arduino with a USB interface on your computer, then run the Arduino IDE by clicking on the icon’s arduino. The first time you have to choose a board that suits you use. For that, click the menu: Tools-> Board.

Every time you change the type of the Arduino board, you must change the configuration of the appropriate board in the Arduino IDE. Most important is the type of microcontroller used and the frequency used must be matched on this configuration by typing menu.

Examples of program “blink” will appear as follows:

The logic of the program can be described as follows:

  1. There are two default functions, there are two setup() and loop() and must exist in the program. Setup () function as program initialization before the loop() function is executed.
  2. Loop() function is a substitute for the function main() in C programming language in general. The difference of this function will perform a continuous loop when the end of code is executed.
  3. The code in line 11 is initializing channel digital channel 13 (D13) as output. This channel is connected to the LED on the Arduino board type nano.
  4. At block loop () there are 4 lines of program code, line 15 is writing of logic one to D13. And will turn on LED, because there are pulldown series by resistor.
  5. Line 16, execution of time delay function with parameter passing 1000 as 1000ms or 1 second. This means that the LED will be turned on for 1 second.
  6. Line 17 is writing of logic low to D13. And will turn off LED.
  7. Line 18 similar with line 16, will executed time delay function about 1 second. This means tha LED will be turned off for 1 second.
  8. Go to line 15 again, because loop() will executed as looping.

To compile and upload to the board nano is very easy just click the upload icon.

please wait for video

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